A Three Point Shot and A Slam Dunk in the Classroom

Being more aware of who is in your classroom matters… and actions matter. We have to start thinking equitably for ways to reduce classism in our classrooms.  

Bias, Classism, and Social Justice

The term “slam dunk” (also known as a ‘dunk shot’) was first used by former Lost Angeles Lakers announcer Chick Hearn in 1972 during a game of basketball, to describe is a shot in which a player mightily jumps up with incredible enthusiasm and forces the ball through the basket. It is a sporting event moment and a crowd favourite. SLAM!! Cheer!! Roar!! Absolutely no question… That. Was. A. Score!!

Image credit: https://unsplash.com/@markbroadhead

Slam Dunk can often be used as a dynamic descriptor to express a hidden meaning.  Essentially, if you say that something is a slam dunk, you mean that a success or victory will be easily achieved… or that something is a “sure thing” – an action with a guaranteed outcome, or at least an impressive achievement!  I like to use the term slam dunk with students to get their attention about a sociological concept(s) that should be a ‘no brainer’.  Something that they need to remember and should be obvious in the reasoning for embracing or enacting change as humans and for coexisting in a civil society.  

Now, I know very little about basketball except for watching my boys play it for their high school teams growing up… But I do know that a three point shot is magical because it is a difficult shot to make.  This is a metaphor, of course… A metaphor is a figure of speech that is used to make a comparison between two things that aren’t alike but do have something in common.  But, this metaphor is all I can think about when I lecture on bias, classism, and social justice in the classroom. I hope you’ll hear me out.  

Image credit: https://unsplash.com/@abhishek_archie

A 3-pointer in basketball is a shot scored anywhere outside the three-point arc. A shot made from anywhere outside the line to the baseline on the other side of the court counts for three points (thanks Wiki for helping me contextualise that one). I think it is quite magical, and I remember many times when my son’s team would score a three point shot in a nail biter of a game.  Everyone would leap up from the bleachers screaming and shouting with excitement until we were hoarse. The sociologist in me screams and shouts the same way when it comes to social and educational stratification.  Specifically smashing bias and classism, and enacting social justice in the classroom. These are the three thinking points of a three point shot.  The Slam Dunk, obviously is what I hope you’ll take away from this reflection. 

Image credit: 21stcenturyphilosophy.wordpress.com

Thinking Point 1: Unconscious Bias

That image above is powerful! I hope you will pause and take it in for a moment before you continue reading…

If you google the term bias, you will find a list a mile long!  A bias is a disproportionate weight in favour of or against an idea or thing, usually in a way that is closed-minded, prejudicial, or unfair. Biases can be innate or learned. People may develop biases for or against an individual, a group, or a belief (Steinbock, 1978).  Biases can be conscious or unconscious, and it is the unconscious biases that are so deeply ingrained in us that we often don’t even realise that we are contributing to the continuation of a bias as we go about our social interactions, day to day. Unconscious bias (also known as implicit bias), refers to attitudes or social stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions—without our conscious awareness. 

We ALL have BIASES, both conscious and unconscious.  We are wired culturally and socially to make generalizations about all kinds of things that often bias our judgements and decision making. In many situations, these unconscious biases are a normal, healthy aspect of our cognitive ability. For example, perhaps you have been burned by an open flame as a curious child that reached out to touch the dancing flame… I am sure you learned very quickly from your experience that placing your hand over a flame is surely going to burn you and you won’t deliberately do that again! 

There are other times when biases can cause us to act in ways that undermine our consciously perceived personal values and goals. Most often these are unconscious biases that cause us to make assumptions about a person because of an aspect of their identity such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, level of ability, etc. For example, perhaps you are a lone woman in an elevator that stops on the next floor after you get in, and two men of a certain racial profile enter. That moment when you unconsciously cast your eyes down, and make yourself very small in the back corner of that elevator so as not to draw attention to yourself, is unconscious bias.  Even when you outwardly feel confident that you are in no danger and have never experienced any personal violence from this particular race or gender, you’ve acted upon an unconscious bias.  If you look again at the image of the ‘shadow’ figure turning the man’s head away as he walks past a homeless man in the street… that is an example of unconscious bias. It is often a them and us scenario without you even realising that you are doing it.  

Photo by Niklas Kickl on Unsplash

We can also have unconscious biases that either favour those who match our own identity and look or act very much like us, or sometimes we favour the identity that we identify is most culturally privileged.  These are learned biases that we’ve absorbed over time. They go deep and they are widely systemic.  I encourage you to watch the documentary Coded Bias on Netflix for an eye opening experience of what I am talking about here. 

You can watch a trailer of this documentary here.

Here’s the rub, and reading this next bit might sting a little…  We all have ingrained biases and beliefs about others that affect our students. Many educators struggle with unconscious bias in their roles at school, and often in ways that can unknowingly perpetuate bias that severely and negatively affects learners. Let’s face it, admiting that we are biased is extremely painful personally, and a hard pill to swallow. When it comes to inequality in schools, it’s easy and tempting to focus on external factors like socioeconomic status as the main culprate that contributes to inequality (don’t worry, this is covered in the next section… I try to be thorough).  Learners are often talked about by teachers who make assumptions based on the student’s perceived status, called ‘confirmation bias’ that renders the student unworthy, unteachable, and/or unsuccessful. Have you ever overheard or participated in one of these conversations? It has to stop… But, it’s much more uncomfortable to tackle a topic like teacher bias, and so many of us just don’t.

This video by Rita Pierson is a MUST to watch. Seriously…

Below is a link to a blog that really gets into the nitty gritty of unconscious bias in the classroom/schools.  Specifically related to achievment, race classification, and perceived gender achievement in certain subjects. I encourage you to read it!  

Teacher bias – The elephant in the classroom

What more can we do?  Remember, we are educators who already devote so much of ourselves to teaching others and we have to be more aware. You’ve likely heard the quote ‘with great power comes great responsibility’.  Voltaire said it first, but Churchill made it famous.  Well folks… as educators, we have a duty and responsibility to search the crevices of our minds to find those unconscious biases and bring them to awareness.  Once you become aware of something, you can never again be ‘unaware’ of it.  When it comes to negative bias, make it your mission to make the unconscious conscious and then take action. 

Thinking Point 2: Classism

Photo by John Moeses Bauan on Unsplash

First, we should have a brief understanding of what social class is, as you’ll want to have an understanding of that in order to understand what ‘classism’ is.  Sociologists define a social class as a group based on similarities in income, education, and occupational prestige.  Members of the upper class have access to much more of all of these things, affording them many privileges based on their social class standing (Classism in Schools & Education, 2016).

Now, let’s talk about classism. Classism is a belief, a behavior and a form of systematic oppression of lower and middle class society to benefit and provide advantage to the upper class. Essentially, we treat people differently (more positively or negatively) based on who they are and where they come from… their social class position. It is a way of thinking and a way of acting toward varying social classes and is a form of explicit bias.  This causes differential treatment based on social class or perceived social class and is so ingrained as a societal norm that people often don’t even realise they are perpetuating it (unconscious bias). 

Watch this brief video for a better understanding of what classism is through the medium of film.

Classism.org explains Classism as a systematic oppression and control of perceived ‘lower’ class groups to advantage and strengthen dominant class groups.  Classism is enacted through systems of policies and practices that assign characteristics of worth and ability based on social class. These policies are set up to benefit the upper classes at the expense of the lower classes which ultimately results in drastic income and wealth inequality. Classism is a significant contributor to social stratification.  Remember, social stratification results from structural inequalities among social groups. 

Image credit: https://www.deviantart.com/theredhankie

Classism in the classroom

Listen, times are hard, I get it.  Many children experience the effects of classism the very first time they enter class.  As early as 5 or 6 years old, and sometimes even in pre-school or nursery school.  Many schools require supplies lists for children attending school at all levels, including pre-school.  These lists include crayons, markers, folders, paper, glue sticks, scissors, highlighters, index cards, even Kleenex, toilet paper, hand sanitiser, and sometimes school uniforms.  Some schools even require children to cover their textbooks with a specific cover that must be purchased, or worse… require the student family to purchase their own textbooks! 

Working class families, children of disabled or unemployed parents, and families living in poverty, homeless, direct provision are struggling to feed, clothe and house themselves and their children.  They aren’t able to afford many of the extras that schools require these days. Here is classism at it’s very worse… requiring children and families to enter school with their bags of school supplies to contribute to a stock pile in the supply cabinet.  Can you imagine how a child who isn’t able to provide these supplies must feel in front of their peers? Having to come into school empty handed, without a bag packed full of supplies.  It is humiliating and singles out the ‘haves’ from the ‘have-nots’ in an open display of inequity.  It is immoral and wrong.  Of course there are always families with the means who are willing to provide ‘extra’ supplies for families who do not have the ability to provide them, and I think this very generous and thoughtful… but bringing your child into the school laden down with bags and bags of extras is also perpetuating classism.  ‘Look at our family and what we have!’ still feels just as demeaning to a family without.  

Image credit: American Psychological Association

There are ways to promote equity in your classroom and honour your students… all of them.  There are always ways!  Why not allow families to drop off school supplies in a community box/bin before classes begin and throughout the year?  If your school is in need and cannot afford these necessary supplies for your students/classroom, why not use your privilege and your own education to act as an advocate and discretely petition organizations, businesses, etc to donate to your classroom.  Many organizations look for ways to help every year.  Isn’t it much more equitable for your students to at least enter the classroom on the first day all having the supplies they need already covered? 

Being more aware of who is in your classroom matters… and actions matter. We have to start thinking equitably for ways to reduce classism in our classrooms.  Again, remember the quote I provided earlier.  ‘With great power comes great responsibility’ – Voltaire. We all have a duty and responsibility to fight classism.  We can do this, one classroom at a time! 

Thinking Point 3: Social Justice

PHOTOGRAPHY BY SHUTTERSTOCK / TYPOGRAPHY BY MICHELE PERRY @ local love.ca

I just love this definition of Social Justice by Bell (1997).  It nicely sums up what social justice is from philosophical standpoint as well as a point of action.  Social justice is both a process and a goal

“Social justice education is both a process and a goal. The goal of social justice education is full and equal participation of all groups in society that is mutually shaped to meet their needs. Social justice includes a vision of society in which the distribution of resources is equitable and all members are physically and psychologically safe and secure. We envision a society in which individuals are both self-determining (able to develop their full capacities), and interdependent (capable of interacting democratically with others).”

Bell (1997)

Social justice is concerned with the ways in which benefits and burdens are distributed among the members of a society. This includes the fairness in which a society provides, protects and recognises the means and qualities that people require to live a good life. Whereas, social justice education is concerned with achieving equitable and quality education for all learners. The impact of education, particularly to improve the lives of the most disadvantaged, cannot be overstated. It is a Constitutionally-protected right for all and contributes to the well-being of our citizens. Investment in education at all levels and throughout the life cycle can deliver a more equal society and prepare citizens to participate in a democracy (socialjustice.ie). 

Are you beginning to see the connection I’m trying to make here?  How bias and classism is detrimental to a socially just process for learning and equally detrimental to a socially just goal for education and society?

Watch this short video to learn more about inequality and social justice.

The focus of our education system must be to ensure people are engaged and active citizens and have the necessary critical and creative skills to navigate an ever- changing employment environment, can adapt to transitions as they occur and participate fully in society. This is especially important for children and young people today who have had their education disrupted by the Covid-19 pandemic and who, upon leaving formal education, will be entering a very different employment landscape than that of their parents (social justice.ie).

I encourage you, if you are interested in advocating for and embracing a socially just classrooms, schools, education systems and community, go check out Social Justice Ireland. They are an independent think tank and justice advocacy organisation that seeks to build a just society. They provide independent social analysis and evidence-based policy proposals, with the aim of creating a sustainable future for every member of society and for societies as a whole. In all things, they focus on human rights and the common good.

Finally, below are some examples (and there are many more that you can google) of principles guiding social justice in education (Sensoy & DiAngelo 2009)… including the belief that:

  • Schools often reproduce rather than remedy the patterns of social exclusion and oppression seen in the larger society. Contributing to the perpetuation of classism, bias and inequity/inequality. Recognise it and respond!
  • There are very real differentials in access to social and institutional power between varying group members, and those differentials exist widely in education settings. Recognise them and oppose the acceptance of this societal behaviour.
  • While all people have socialized prejudices and can discriminate (here’s bias again), only the dominant group is backed by social and institutional power, which is multidimensional and constantly operating, being contested, and renegotiated, especially within schools. VOICE matters!!! If we have a voice and we have freedom to express ourselves, do it… no matter how difficult it feels.
  • Those who claim to be for social justice must also be engaged in self-reflection on their own socialisation into patterns of oppression and continually seek to counter those patterns. Reflect and enact a daily ‘self’ check. Believe me, it is important to your learners.

These are an essential element of lifelong learning, and is not achieved just because you’ve read an article, or completed a workshop, a conference or module in social justice. It is an awareness that must be practiced daily. Change begins with you.

Slam DUNK! … and the crowd goes wild!  

Reference List

Bell, L. A., Washington, S., Weinstein, G., & Love, B. (1997). Knowing ourselves as instructors. Teaching for diversity and social justice: A sourcebook, 299-310.

Classism in Schools & Education. (2016, August 31). Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/classism-in-schools-education.html

Sensoy, O. & DiAngelo, R (2009). Developing social justice literacy: An open letter to our faculty colleagues. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), p. 350.

 Steinbock, Bonnie (1978). “Speciesism and the Idea of Equality”.Philosophy.53(204): 247–256.doi:10.1017/S0031819100016582

We Are Here!

We need to educate teachers to think about pushing past the superficial treatments of culture and get to the depth of student’s identity and successful learning and to consider Adams (2007) argument that how we teach is distinct from what we teach. We need to set extremely high expectations for every student’s success and maintaining that at all costs. Having a real understanding of what works best for each individual to acquire the highest standard of education regardless of race, class, ethnicity, immigrant status, socio-economic status, or ability.

I am currently working on a research project with my friend and colleague, Dr Carol Ann O’Síoráin.

This reflection centres around content from our forthcoming publication on learner voice, social justice, and a Universal Design for Learning(UDL) approach to teaching and learning entitled Every Little Voice Matters: Learner voice, social justice, and a UDL approach to teaching and learning. We recorded our discussion on YouTube and the video link is available at the end of this reflection.

Image depicts Dr Seuss’s Horton the Elephant on a blue background with the title of our publication in preparation with the word’s ‘We are here! We are here! We are here!’

What follows is the narrative of my contribution to the discussion.  Carol Ann continues the conversation about doing things right and doing the right things… and you will definitely need to listen to, or watch the video to capture her important contribution to the discussion. (I will upload the audio file soon).

Carol Ann and I believe that ongoing professional conversation is vital, and we invite you to contribute to this discussion with some points to ponder. Here is an online link that you can use to engage with questions that we have provided for you. https://padlet.com/sgarland12/b87dzlc6341xykv4

Points to Ponder

  1. What does a socially just education look like in the Irish context?
  2. What examples or suggestions do you have that might contribute to a model for marrying educational policy making and research with inclusion and socially just classroom practice?
  3. Has your concept of inclusion become your own oppressor? Have you fallen into an ‘ethical sinkhole’? 
  4. When it comes to inclusive policy and practice, ‘are you doing the right thing, or doing things right?’
  5. Further reflections on learner voice, social justice and UDL for teaching and learning

Our conversation is approached from a sociological perspective about why learner voice is critical for a socially just and equitable education in Ireland.  

Let’s begin, shall we?

Schaefer (2020) defines sociology as simply the scientific study of social behaviour and human groups.  It focuses on social relationships and how those relationships influence people’s behaviour and how societies, through those relationships, develop and change. As you read this, I encourage you to engage your sociological imagination. 

Image credit: https://unsplash.com/@andressalas

Your sociological imagination is simply a particular type of critical thinking that invites you to think about your ‘self’ and your awareness of the relationship between yourself and other individuals, AND your interaction with the wider society… but to think as an ‘outsider’ might think, rather than just from your own perspective, experiences, and cultural biases.  

Watch this short video for a better understanding of the sociological imagination. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=my_zyLCRBms

Let me see if I can further set the stage for this reflection. Do you know the story of Horton Hears a Who, by Dr Seuss?  It is the story of a kind-hearted elephant named Horton, who lives in the Jungle of Nool. 

Hear the full story of Horton Hears a Who by: Dr Seuss here: https://youtu.be/B-i1E1UbwVI

Horton is a happy, easy-going guy who enjoys all the benefits in life, of being a citizen of Nool. But, unlike many of his fellow ‘Jungle-dwellers’ he’s a very ‘intuitive’ and open kind of an elephant (in touch with his sociological imagination, let’s say), so when he hears a tiny voice calling out to him, he doesn’t ignore it.  He investigates… He listens and searches and finds the tiny world of the Whos’ on a speck of dust – a whole city of little Whos’, who are very different from the people in the Jungle.  He can’t really see them, but his big ears come in handy and he can certainly hear them.

Image credit: https://unsplash.com/@sharonmccutcheon

The problem is that the other citizens in the jungle of Nool cannot hear the Whos’ and frankly are not bothered with the possibility that they even exist. Horton is mocked and threatened by the others in his jungle world for believing in, and caring for those people in the other world.   But that doesn’t stop Horton. He works tirelessly to advocate for the little Whos’ and brings to light the importance of their world and the idea that listening to difference and working together to protect the right of ‘voice’ can be transformative for everyone. 

Quote from the Dr Suess book ‘Horton Hears a Who’.
Image credit: https://quotesgram.com/horton-hears-a-who-quotes/

Why do I start with this story?  Because, Horton is a lesson in social justice and the audacious possibility that if we respect and listen, every little voice counts! There is a significant disconnect between theory and practice in teacher education, and Carol Ann discusses this in more detail in our recorded discussion.

What I want to expand on, is the issue of Equity and Equality and the concepts of Horizontal and Vertical Equity. 

Image credit: https://unsplash.com/@erickarim

The barriers to equitable education can affect groups based on race, gender, and many other factors. The issues are not only who is being targeted but also how we try to resolve them. In terms of equity vs equality in the classroom, most schools focus on horizontal equity. Catapano (2013) defines horizontal equity in education as treating people who are already assumed equal in the same way. Horizontal equityis only useful in homogenous schools, where each person really is given the same opportunities in life. 

Image credit: https://unsplash.com/@nate_dumlao

But here’s the thing… in most schools, students come from a variety of backgrounds– some more privileged than others. For this reason, educators should focus on vertical equity, which assumes that students have different needs and provides individual resources based on these needs. (waterford.org)

UDL is based on this design idea. Social Justice AND an equitable education is for everyone. 

Image credit: https://unsplash.com/@karen1974

Basically, a social justice framework or approach, is a way of seeing and acting aimed at resisting unfairness and inequity while enhancing freedom and possibility for all. Schools often unconsciously reproducerather than remedy the patterns of social exclusion and oppression seen within the larger society. A social justice framework in education presents a pathway to make sure that we are ALL seen as human beings and that we’re ALL equitably treated.  

Image credit: https://unsplash.com/@jessbaileydesigns

We need to educate teachers to think about pushing past the superficial treatments of culture and get to the depth of student’s identity and successful learning and to consider Adams (2007) argument that how we teach is distinct from what we teach. We need to set extremely high expectations for every student’s success and maintaining that at all costs.  Having a real understanding of what works best for each individual to acquire the highest standard of education regardless of race, class, ethnicity, immigrant status, socio-economic status, or ability. 

Teaching from a socially-just perspective is simply a commitment to challenging social, cultural, and economic inequalities imposed on individuals arising from any gap in the distribution of power, resources, and privilege. (mills.edu)

Unfortunately, making educators conform to a strict set of guidelines sets the expectation that each class fits a prefab curriculum, when in reality, each and every class (and individual student) learns uniquely different. Social justice demands equity for all students… not equality, but equity.  Equality is giving every student the same thing. It is like giving everyone a size 38 pair of shoes and expecting them fit.  

Image credit: https://unsplash.com/@markusspiske

Equitable education works when teachers are empowered with a sociological imagination and mindset, to understand and incorporate students’ backgrounds and experiences as strengths rather view them as hurdles to overcome. (mills.edu)

In Ireland, now more than ever, the need for educators to affect change in education is critical.  A recent Irish Times report (2019) on class and disadvantage in education printed what we have all experienced in the last decade or so… Ireland is more ethnically and socially diverse today than it has ever been. (IrishTimes.com)

At a disadvantage: while middle-class girls thrive, working-class boys struggle. Image Credit: Moment/Getty (IrishTimes.com)

Schools with the highest need for English learners’ curriculum don’t have an adequate number of qualified teachers or school leaders. They go on to state that ‘the bottom line is that there are gaps in the educational system that are tracked and measured disproportionately. These inherent gaps are satisfied for students with wealthy families who have an excess of out-of-school resources BUT remain for students with poor families.  

In 2015, the department of education and skills, the department of children and youth affairs and Comhairle na nÓg initiated the The National Strategy on Children and Young People’s Participation in Decision-making 2015-2020.

They were interested in ensuring that students in Ireland have a voice and input in decisions that affect their lives – such as education.  They produced a very informative report called ‘So How Was School Today? Report of survey on how young people are taught and how they learn’, that validates the importance of student voice in education reform.

Devine (2017) states ‘government policy is clear that children and young people should have a say in matters that directly affect them and that they should be empowered to express their views’. But the findings from the survey and report highlight the lack of voice young people have in school and that they most certainly believe they should have more say.  

A new survey of students suggests a serious mismatch between how priority subjects on the school curriculum are being experienced by our younger citizens, says Prof Dympna Devine. (IrishTimes.com) Image Credit: iStock

The report confirms that gender is an issue in relation to the level of stress in school… and that exam stress is a big factor for student well-being as well as how teachers teach. The survey exposes the need for further research on teacher influence and attitudes toward students and the affect these biases have on student well-being and attitudes toward school themselves.  (IrishTimes.com)

The Children’s School Lives study found that about half of teachers feel standardised tests are causing anxiety among children and parents. Photograph: iStock
(IrishTimes.com)

The survey also revealed that as young people move from the primary level through the secondary level, they become less positive in their attitudes about school. They suggest that further research is needed on the kinds of learning methods that challenge and stimulate students, and that encourage students to be actively involved. The benefits of such methods need to be explored so that the relationships between teachers and students are based on trust and respect. 

Finally, their report indicates a need for further research to explore how teaching and learning in schools is influenced by social class and ethnicity… and if this differs for boys and girls, and from one kind of school to another. 

A moving address from Senator Lynn Ruane on social justice and inequity in Irish society.

Educators are responsible for creating meaningful change and Social justice is a mindset (mills.edu).  Actively using your sociological imagination. The goal is that as a student teacher in Initial Teacher Education (ITE), you learn to implement it, not recite it for a test.  

A Social Justice Framework needs to be incorporated into both ITE and CPD for educators and administrators for a more equitable, inclusive and holistic learning environment that incorporates the powerful tool of allowing learner voice to direct us in what they need for successful learning. By learning in a social justice-oriented setting, educational leaders go on to impart this pedagogy to the school systems they serve.

A classroom practicing social justice will encourage:
(by the teacher with the learner)
1. Active contributions from the students in the class and real-life, societal and community connections between students and teachers.
2. Active contributions from the students in the class and real-life, societal and community connections between students and teachers. 
3. Active contributions from the students in the class and real-life, societal and community connections between students and teachers.
4. Implementing an actionable and measurable curricula so that you can track improvement.
5. Constant discourse and comfortability with dissent, tension and inviting those uncomfortable conversations in a safe space and with a sociological imagination. 

‘A social justice classroom is one that is critical in nature, thus, we should be constantly encouraging students to question the world around them as well as the schools they attend.’ 

— Belle (2019)

edweek.org

It is important to see this again:

Such important conversations need to be had around these issues.  Let’s keep the discussion going.

I hope that you’ll take the time to visit the link below and reflect on the five questions presented.

Click the ‘Points to Ponder’ link below to reflect on the questions presented.

Points to Ponder

  1. What does a socially just education look like in the Irish context?
  2. What examples or suggestions do you have that might contribute to a model for marrying educational policy making and research with inclusion and socially just classroom practice?
  3. Has your concept of inclusion become your own oppressor? Have you fallen into an ‘ethical sinkhole’? 
  4. When it comes to inclusive policy and practice, ‘are you doing the right thing, or doing things right?’
  5. Further reflections on learner voice, social justice and UDL for teaching and learning

Reference List

Adams, M. (2007). Pedagogical frameworks for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. A. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (p. 15–33). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Belle, C. (2019). What is Social Justice Education Anyway? Education Week. 23 January 2019.

https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/opinion-what-is-social-justice-education-anyway/2019/01 Accessed: 19 January 2021. 

Catapano, S., & Thompson, C. (2013). Teachers begin developing socio-cultural awareness in early field experiences. Learning Communities13, 13-27.

Devine, D. (2017). So, how was school today? Report of a survey on how young people are taught and how they learn.

Garland, S.A. & O’Síoráin, C.A (In prep) Every Little Voice Matters: Learner voice, social justice, and a UDL approach to teaching and learning.  

The synopsis narrative of Horton Hears a Who adapted from: https://thebookbadger.com/we-are-here-horton-hears-a-who-and-activism/

https://www.gov.ie/en/publication/9128db-national-strategy-on-children-and-young-peoples-participation-in-dec/